咨询老师24h在线,欢迎您的来电!

热门:

免试入学资格在线测评

2019考研英语(一)试题参考答案与解析

发布日期:2019-12-03浏览次数:13作者:HeYan

 Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Today, we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are all available on our smartphones. 1 of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones 2 on batteries......

  1. [A] Few [B] More [C] Some [D]All

  2. [A] put [B] take [C] run [D]come

  3. [A] Since [B] Until [C] Though [D]If

  4. [A] formally [B]literally [C]gradually [D]relatively

  5. [A] around [B] away [C] back [D]next

  6. [A] onto [B] along [C] across [D]off

  7. [A] unattractive [B]unfamiliar [C]unchanged [D]uncrowded

  8. [A] way [B] point [C] site [D]place

  9. [A] Instead [B] Yet [C] So [D]Besides

  10.[A]immediately [B]eventually [C]unexpectedly [D]intentionally

  11. [A] frightened [B] annoyed [C]surprised [D]confused

  12. [A] problem [B] result [C] view [D]option

  13. [A] Above all [B] For example [C] On average [D] In contrast

  14. [A] spot [B] avoid [C] bridge [D]separate

  15. [A] from [B] under [C] beyond [D]through

  16. [A] posts [B] breaks [C] shades [D] links

  17. [A] hidden [B] mysterious [C]artificial [D]limited

  18. [A] Finally [B] Consequently [C] Incidentally [D] Generally

  19. [A] memories [B] belongings [C] notes [D]marks

  20. [A] lead [B] adapt [C]restrict [D]expose

  英语一·答案解析·完型填空

  【1】

  v 答案:A【Few】

  v 分析:语义题。前句已指出,当今,我们生活在这样一个世界:我们在手机上就可以使用全球定位系统、数字地图和其他导航app,这说明手机对导航非常重要。因此,几乎没有人会不带手机直接走入森林,更符合语义,故A【Few】(很少数,几乎没有)更符合文意。

  v 干扰选项:B选项More(更多),C选项Some(一些),D选项All(所有)。均不符合文意。

  【2】

  v 答案:C【run】

  v 分析:语义题+固定搭配题。本题考查手机与电池之间的关系,根据常识可知,手机需要靠电池才能运行,故C【run】(运作,运行),为正确答案,且run on sth. 是固定搭配,表示“靠……运转或运行”.

  v 干扰选项:A选项put (on)(穿上;举办),B选项take (on)(承担;呈现),D选项come (on)(来吧;进展),且come on常单独使用。均不符合文意。

  【3】

  v 答案:D【If】

  v 分析:逻辑关系题。浏览选项可知,本题为逻辑关系题。做题步骤:1)确定连接成分:本题所在句由and连接,是一个完整句,其后a few tricks may help…也是一个完整句,因此,连接成分为you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you… a north与a few tricks may help you… land 2)确定语义关系:前半句指出,你迷路了,身上没带手机,也没带指南针,而且你……找不到北,一些方法可能会指引你……到有人烟的地方,其中一种就是沿着陆地走。不难判断,前面内容应为假设,后面内容为可能发生的情况。故D选项If(如果),表“条件”,更符合逻辑。

  v 干扰选项:A选项Since(因为),表“原因”;B选项Until(直到);C选项Though(虽然),表“让步”。均不符合逻辑。

  【4】

  v 答案:B【literally】

  v 分析:语义题。如果你迷路了,身上没带手机,也没带指南针,而且你确实找不到北。更符合文意。故B选项literally(确实地,真正地),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项formally(正式地),C选项gradually(逐渐地),D选项relatively(相对低)。均不符合文意。

  【5】

  v 答案:C【back】

  v 分析:语义题。本题考查navigate(导航,指引方向)与civilization(文明;居住区)之间的关系。根据常识,如果你迷路了而且找不到北,那么一些方法会指引你回到有人烟的地方,符合文意,故C选项back(回到),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项around(围绕;四处),B选项away(离开;朝另一个方向),D选项next(离得近的;下一个的)。均不符合文意。

  【6】

  v 答案:D【off】

  v 分析:语义题。根据你需要回答的两个问题之一:哪里有比较近的水源?不难推断,人一般在迷路的时候才会考虑这个问题,故D选项off(离开),为正确答案。off a trail表示离开一条路,其实表示迷路,是get lost(迷路)的同义替换。

  v 干扰选项:A选项onto(到……上;朝……),B选项along(沿着),C选项across(穿过)。均不符合文意。

  【7】

  v 答案:B【unfamiliar】

  v 分析:逻辑关系题,因本题前面有表示转折的连词but,故本题为逻辑关系题。做题步骤:1)确定连接成分:根据前面的标点“,”不难判断,but连接的成分为you find yourself off a trail与not in a completely 7 area of land。2)确保语义方向相反:前面指出,发现自己迷路,那么后面应与“迷路”相反,即不是在一块完全不熟悉的土地更符合逻辑。故B选项unfamiliar(不熟悉的),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项unattractive(不吸引人的),C选项unchanged(未改变过的),D选项uncrowded(不拥挤的)。均不符合逻辑。

  【8】

  v 答案:A【way】

  v 分析:语义题。根据两个问句后面的内容,人类大多居住在山谷,因为这里可以供应淡水,不难推知,找到了下山的路,就可以找到人类的居住区。因此,人们需要回答的第一个问题是:哪条路可以下山?故A选项【way】(路),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:B选项point(地方;观点),C选项site(地方;场所),D选项place(地方;住所)。均不符合文意。

  【9】

  v 答案:C【So】

  v 分析:逻辑关系题。浏览选项可知,本题为逻辑关系题。做题步骤:1)确定连接成分:上句与本句,即Humans overwhelmingly… water. 与if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should… people. 2)确定语义关系:上句指出人类大多居住在山谷,因为这里可以供应淡水;下句指出,如果你向山下走,而且跟着水走,你应该……会发现人的迹象。不难判断,前后为因果关系。故C选项So(因此),表“因果”,为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项Instead(相反,而),表“转折”;B选项Yet(然而),表“转折”;D选项Besides(除……之外还),表“补充”。均不符合逻辑。

  【10】

  v 答案:B【eventually】

  v 分析:语义题。经过前面的努力,即往山下走,跟着水走,你比较终就会发现人的迹象,更符合文意,故B选项eventually(比较终),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项immediately(立刻),C选项unexpectedly(意外地),D选项intentionally(有意地)。均不符合文意。

  【11】

  v 答案:C【surprised】

  v 分析:语义题。破折号常用于引出对前面的内容的解释或发生的原因,本题位于破折号后面,故须结合前面内容来判断。如果你之前探索过这个区域,要留心熟悉的景象。后面提到的a distinctive rock or tree均是对familiar sights的解释说明。因此,你可能会惊讶,通过识别一棵有特点的岩石或树木就能非常快速地找到方向。故C选项surprised(惊讶的),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项frightened(害怕的),B选项annoyed(生气的),D选项confused(困惑的)。均不符合文意。

  【12】

  v 答案:D【option】

  v 分析:语义题。本题后面的标点“:”通常表示下文是上文的解释和发挥,故须了解其后的内容,向高处爬,并且寻找人类居住的痕迹。不难推知,这是针对上文提到的往山下走的另一种选择,故D选项option(选择),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项problem(问题),B选项result(结果),C选项view(风景;视野;观点)。均不符合文意。

  【13】

  v 答案:B【For example】

  v 分析:逻辑关系题。浏览选项可知,本题为逻辑关系题。做题步骤:1)确定连接成分:因选项均为介词短语,且位于句首,故连接上句与本句,即Another… human habitation.与even in dense forest, … woods. 2)确定语义关系:上句指出,另一个选择是向高处爬,并且寻找人类居住的痕迹。下句指出,即使是在茂密的森林里,你应该……由于公路、火车轨道和其他人们……森林开凿的路而造成的树线缺口,不难推知,后面内容是前面寻找人类居住痕迹的例证,故B选项For example(例如),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项Above all(首先,比较重要的是),表“强调”;C选项On average(平均);D选项In contrast(相比之下),表“对比”。均不符合逻辑。

  【14】

  v 答案:A【spot】

  v 分析:语义题。根据上题可知,gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths (由于公路、火车轨道和其他人们……森林开凿的路而造成的树线缺口),都是人类居住的痕迹,因此,人们需要注意这些痕迹。故A选项spot(发现,注意到),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:B选项avoid(避免),C选项bridge(弥合),D选项separate(使分离)。均不符合文意。

  【15】

  v 答案:D【through】

  v 分析:语义题+固定搭配题。本题考查carve(开凿)与woods(森林)之间的关系,根据常识可知,路应该是穿过森林开凿出来的,故本句意为穿过森林开凿出的公路。故D选项through(穿过),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项from(从,来自),B选项under(在……下面),C选项beyond(超出)。均不符合……。

  【16】

  v 答案:B【breaks】

  v 分析:语义题。前句已提到,要注意因为人为原因而造成的gaps in the tree line(树线缺口),故不难判断,朝着有树木缺口的地方走,就能找到出去的路。gaps的同义词,B选项breaks(缺口,裂缝),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项posts(柱,桩),C选项shades(背阴处),D选项links(联系)。均不符合文意。

  v 。

  【17】

  v 答案:C【artificial】

  v 分析:逻辑关系题。因题干中such as(例如),表总分关系,故本题为逻辑关系题。做题步骤:1)确定连接成分: 17 light sources与fires and streetlights(火与街灯)。2)确定语义方向:火与街灯的共同特征是:都是人造光源,故C选项artificial(人造的),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项hidden(隐藏的),B选项mysterious(神秘的),D选项limited(有限的),均不符合文意。

  【18】

  v 答案:A【Finally】

  v 分析:语义题。后面指出,假设你在人类常去的地方迷路,寻找我们在地面上留下的……。因为前文已经列举了几种情况,如当你在一个并非完全不熟悉的环境中迷路;当你在茂密的森林中迷路,可知这是比较后假设的一种情况。故A选项Finally(比较后),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:B选项Consequently(结果),C选项Incidentally(偶然地),D选项Generally(通常地)。均不符合文意。

  【19】

  v 答案:D【marks】

  v 分析:语义题。根据常识,在人类常去的地方,地面上必定有很多标志,故寻找我们在地面上留下的标志,更符合文意,D选项marks(标志),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:A选项memories(回忆),B选项belongings(财产),C选项notes(记录;便签)。均不符合文意。

  【20】

  v 答案:A【lead】

  v 分析:语义题。道路上的树皮刻痕、轮胎印和其他特征能够指引你去有人烟的地方,更符合文意,且与前文中的navigate同义。故A选项lead(引领),为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:B选项adapt(适应;改编),C选项restrict(限制),D选项expose(使暴露)。均不符合文意。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Financial regulators in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year...

  The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies...

  In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shorter attention spans in financial markets...

  In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance ...

  Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism”, such as changes in the tax code ...

  Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think ...

  21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is to ______.

  [A] enhance bankers’ sense of responsibility

  [B] help corporations achieve larger profits

  [C] guarantee the bonuses of top executives

  [D] build a new system of financial regulation

  22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate ______.

  [A] the conditions for generating quick profits

  [B] “short-termism” in economic activities

  [C] governments’ impatience in decision-making

  [D] the solid structure of publicly traded companies

  23. It is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be ______.

  [A] temporary

  [B] indirect

  [C] minimal

  [D] adverse

  24. The US and France examples are used to illustrate ______.

  [A] the significance of long-term thinking

  [B] the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”

  [C] the approaches to promoting “long-termism”

  [D] the prevalence of short-term thinking

  25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers

  [B] Failure of Quarterly Capitalism

  [C] Decisiveness Required of Top Executives

  [D] Patience as a Corporate Virtue

  英语一·答案解析·阅读第1篇

  【21】

  v 答案:A【enhance bankers’ sense of responsibility】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干one motive可定位到第一段③④句The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institutions. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long-term decision-making, not only by banks but by all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.③句首先介绍了实施新策的主要目的,④句补充次要目的。其中③句中提及主要目的之一是让银行家为其不良的冒险行为负责,A选项对此同义转换,故正确。

  v 干扰选项:B选项偷换概念,原文提及larger benefit指实施新策的好处,不是企业利润。C选项正反混淆,原文为延期支付高层管理者的津贴。D选项无中生有,原文未提及。

 【22】

  v 答案:B【“short-termism” in economic activities】

  v 分析:本题为例证题。根据题干Alfred Marshall首先定位到第二段②句具体论据部分,该论据论证的论点定位到本段①句“Short-termism,” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist, Andrew Haldane.“短期主义”已在公开上市交易的公司中恶化,论据进一步解释了金融领域中“短期主义”的含义,故B选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项无中生有,原文未提及产生快速收益的条件。C选项偷换概念,原文为financial impatience指金融领域的急躁,而不是政府。D选项无中生有,原文未提及。

  【23】

  v 答案:D【adverse】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干transient investment可定位到第三段②句Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty.短暂投资者会阻碍公司对长期发展所做的努力,故短暂投资对公司的影响是不利的,D选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项答非所问,解释了transient的含义。B、C选项均无中生有,原文未提及。

  【24】

  v 答案:C【the approaches to promoting “long-termism”】

  v 分析:本题为例证题。根据题干The US and France example定位到第五、六段。该论据论证的论点定位到第六段①句Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism”...此句承上启下,指明美国和法国的举措均是为了鼓励“长期主义”,故C选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A、B、D选项均无中生有,利用原文个别表达,如long-term或 “short-termism”,进行干扰。

  【25】

  v 答案:D【Patience as a Corporate Virtue】

  v 分析:本题为主旨大意题。文章首段末句为转折句Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long-term decision-making, not only by banks but by all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.指出实施新策更是为了促进长期决策制定。文章尾段末句Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.呼应开头,重现主题——鼓励金融行业中的“长期主义”。“短期主义”在第二段②句中被描述为financial impatience,故“长期主义”对应patience,D选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项以偏概全,原文仅在开头提及银行家将对自己的冒险行为负责。B选项以偏概全,quarterly capitalism的消极影响为文章部分信息。C选项偷换概念,全文围绕避免“短期主义”鼓励“长期主义”展开,但文章中心不是要求高层领导者具备决策力。

  Text 2

  Grade inflation—the gradual increase in average GPAs (grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated...

  The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates...

  v Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations...

  26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?

  [A] The change of course catalogs.

  [B] Students’ indifference to GPAs.

  [C] Colleges’ neglect of GPAs.

  [D] The influence of consumer culture.

  27. What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?

  [A] To help freshmen adapt to college learning.

  [B] To maintain colleges’ graduation rates.

  [C] To prepare graduates for a challenging future.

  [D] To increase universities’ income from tuition.

  28. According to Paragraph 5, grade forgiveness enables colleges to ______.

  [A] obtain more financial support

  [B] boost their student enrollments

  [C] improve their teaching quality

  [D] meet local governments’ needs

  29. What does the phrase “to be aligned” (Para. 6) most probably mean?

  [A] To counterbalance each other.

  [B] To complement each other.

  [C] To be identical with each other.

  [D] To be contradictory to each other.

  30. The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by ______.

  [A] assessing its feasibility

  [B] analyzing the causes behind it

  [C] comparing different views on it

  [D] listing its long-run effects

  Text 3

  This year marks exactly two centuries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.

  Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions: “What is intelligence, identity, ...

  Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist. “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”

  But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical...

  31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it .

  [A] fascinates AI scientists all over the world

  [B] involves some concerns raised by Al today

  [C] has remained popular for as long as 200 years

  [D] has sparked serious ethical controversies

  32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness .

  [A] is too limited for us to reproduce it

  [B] can be misleading to robot making

  [C] helps explain artificial intelligence

  [D] inspires popular sci-fi TV series

  33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles .

  [A] causes little public concern

  [B] can hardly ever be found

  [C] is still beyond our capacity

  [D] has aroused much curiosity

  34. The author’s attitude toward Google’s pledges is one of .

  [A] respect

  [B] skepticism

  [C] contempt

  [D] affirmation

  35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants

  [B] The Conscience of Al: Complex But Inevitable

  [C] Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI

  [D] Al Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control

  英语一·答案解析·阅读第3篇

  【31】

  v 答案:B【involves some concerns raised by AI today】

  v 分析:本题为主旨大意题的抛砖引玉类型。根据题干Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein首先定位到第一段①句。抛砖引玉手法引出的文章主题在“砖”(本题即novel Frankenstein)之后,故定位到本段②句Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come. 此书的意义在于预估了科技导致的伦理问题,对应B选项(如今人工智能引发一些担忧)正确——②句中remarkable work指代novel Frankenstein, ethical questions对应于B选项中some concerns,be raised by technologies对应于B选项中raised by AI。

  v 干扰选项:A选项无中生有,利用远离定位位置的第三段②句中fascinated进行干扰。C选项就事论事,利用200年与第一段①句two centuries同义替换,不是要引出的文章主旨。D选项偷换概念,原文为foreshadow指小说预示了科技导致的伦理问题,而不是spark激发出严重伦理争议。

  【32】

  v 答案:A【is too limited for us to reproduce it】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干David Eagleman首先定位到第四段①句Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman...人如何思考这个问题仍然太复杂而难以理解,更不用提去使人的意识再生,对应A选项(我们当下对于意识的了解十分有限,难以使意识再生),故为正确答案。

  v 干扰选项:B选项偷换概念,原文第四段②句为:没有好的理论去解释如何建造机器,B选项偷换成:我们当下对意识的了解会误导机器人的制作。C选项无中生有,原文未提及帮助解释人工智能。D选项移花接木,拼凑第三段②句中的sci-fi TV series进行干扰。

  【33】

  v 答案:C【is still beyond our capacity】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干ethical issues和autonomous vehicles首先定位到第五段①②句。题干就自动驾驶汽车引发的伦理问题的解决方法(solution)提问,需定位到下文⑤⑥句AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.自动驾驶汽车的人工智能“视野”不如人类视野精密,并且驾驶情景的预估能力难以编程,可知目前仍难以解决这一伦理问题,故C选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项(引起较少的社会关注)与D选项(引起较大的好奇)均无中生有,原文未提及。B选项(几乎从未被发现),表义过于绝对,原文提及解决方法,只是目前难以实现。

  【34】

  v 答案:D【affirmation】

  v 分析:本题为态度题。根据题干Google’s pledges(保证;诺言)首先定位到第七段。作者态度并未在第七段中体现,故定位到第八段①句While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. The statement(声明)指代前文中Google’s pledges,句意为:尽管这个声明有些含糊,但是其代表着一个起点。可见作者对于Google’s pledges持肯定态度,故D选项正确。此外,根据态度题的解题技巧,C选项contempt(轻蔑)可优先排除。

  v 干扰选项:A选项respect(尊重),原文未体现。B选项skepticism(怀疑),与文中感情色彩相反。C选项为不可表达的态度,可排除。

【35】

  v 答案:B【The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable】

  v 分析:本题为主旨大意题。文章中心可定位到文章第二段Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions: “What is intelligence, identity, or consciousness? What makes humans humans?”和比较后一段本文中心围绕intelligence, identity, or consciousness,及与之相关的伦理问题,故B选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项(科技巨头手握AI未来),无中生有。C选项本末倒置,文章开头提及小说是为了引出文章中主旨,其本身并不是文章中心。D选项以偏概全,out of control仅仅出现在文章比较后一句Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster. 故错误。

  Text 4

  States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.

  The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday ...

  36. The Supreme Court decision Thursday will .

  [A] better businesses’ relations with states

  [B] put most online businesses in a dilemma

  [C] make more online shoppers pay sales tax

  [D] force some sates to cut sales tax

  37. It can be learned from Paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions .

  [A] have led to the dominance of e-commerce

  [B] have cost consumers a lot over the years

  [C] were widely criticized by online purchasers

  [D] were considered unfavorable by states

  38. According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, the physical presence rule has .

  [A] hindered economic development

  [B] brought prosperity to the country

  [C] harmed fair market competition

  [D] boosted growth in states’ revenue

  39. Who are most likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling?

  [A] Internet entrepreneurs.

  [B] Big-chain owners.

  [C] Third-party sellers.

  [D] Small retailers.

  40. In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday, the author .

  [A] gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences

  [B] describes the long and complicated process of its making

  [C] presents its main points with conflicting views on them

  [D] cites some cases related to it and analyzes their implications

  英语一·答案解析·阅读第4篇

  【36】

  v 答案:C【make more online shoppers pay sales tax】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干Supreme Court decision Thursday可定位到第一段States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.C选项为force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases的同义替换,故C选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A、B、C选项均无中生有。

  【37】

  v 答案:D【were considered unfavorable by states】

  v 分析:本题为细节推断题。根据题干定位到第二三段。由第二段The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.可推断出被推翻的政策对政府收入不利,故D选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项无中生有。B选项正反混淆,第三段②句Customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn’t realize they owed it and few paid.可知the overruled decisions并没有花customer/consumers很多钱,故B选项【have cost consumers a lot over the years】错误。C选项无中生有。

  【38】

  v 答案:C【harmed fair market competition】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干Justice Anthony Kennedy可定位到第四段,本段③句Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited States’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”指出Kennedy认为这项规则限制了政府寻求长期繁荣,并阻碍了市场参与者的公平竞争, C选项对后半句同义转换,故正确。

  v 干扰选项:A选项偷换概念,原文为该政策限制了政府寻求长期繁荣,而不是阻碍了经济发展。B选项正反混淆,(为国家带来繁荣)与原文语义相反。D选项正反混淆,根据第四段②句“Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the states,” he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices.,可知D选项(促进政府收入的增长)与原文语义相反。

  【39】

  v 答案:B【Big-chain owners.】

  v 分析:本题为细节题。根据题干the Supreme Court ruling可定位到第五段①句The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already.由划线处a victory for big chains可推断出big-chain owners比较可能欢迎the Supreme Court ruling,故B选项正确。

  v 干扰选项:末段④句The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council advocacy group said in a statement, “Small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision.” 指出这项决定并未服务小型企业和互联网创业公司,故A选项【Internet entrepreneurs.】和D选项【Small retailers.】错误。C选项【Third-party sellers.】虽在第五段④句Amazon.com, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party sellers who use the site don’t have to.中出现过,但并未提到其会欢迎the Supreme Court ruling,故C选项错误。

  【40】

  v 答案:D【cites some cases related to it and analyzes their implications】

  v 分析:本题为主旨大意题中对篇章结构的考查。文章开篇引出新政则;第二、三段描述旧政策的弊端;第四段阐述大法官的观点;第五、六、七段分别论述新政策对不同群体的影响,为文章较为重要的部分。D选项主要概括出后三段的主要内容,即通过介绍一些实例,阐述新政策的内涵,故为正确选项。

  v 干扰选项:A、B、C选项均与文章不符。

 Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 4145, you are required to recognize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list AG and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs G and E have been correctly placed. Make your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] The tools can help you win every argument—not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponent but in the better sense of learning about why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together ...

  Order:

  41 →42 →F→43 →44 →C→45

  英语一·答案解析·新题型

  【41】

  v 答案:E【In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People, Dalo Carnegie wrote: “There is...】

  v 分析:此题需要判断首段,首段需要引入背景信息,并且无指代、无逻辑关系。浏览各个选项,A选项the tools有指代;B选项Of course是逻辑关系特征;D选项无指代,但是只出现Carnegie而非E选项中的Dalo Carnegie;而G选项未能像E选项那样引入主题。故E选项正确。

  【42】

  v 答案:D【Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights】

  v 分析:E选项出现Carnegie的观点,选项中只有D选项再次出现Carnegie的观点。

  【43】

  v 答案:G【There is a better way to win arguments.】

  v 分析:上段F末句出现了None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win--in one way.,为对these tricks的否定,G选项首句There is a better way to win arguments.提出了一个更好的方法,构成转折关系,故G选项正确。

  【44】

  v 答案:B【Of course, many discussions are not so successful.】

  v 分析:上段G末句Now we can understand each others’ positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.内容对应A选项中so successful。

  【45】

  v 答案:A【The tools can help you win every argument】

  v 分析:上段C选项中Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.分别罗列了四种谈话手段,与A选项中tools对应。

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully ...

  It was only after I started ...in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which...

  (48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers. This is the famed...

  Boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of ...

  英语一·答案解析·翻译

  【46】

  v 原句:(46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.(32词)

  v 译文:医学期刊中存在大量此类无稽之谈(1分),广播公司和非专业媒体报道后(0.5分),会引发人们对健康问题的恐慌并激起短暂的食疗热潮(0.5分)。

  【47】

  v 原句:(47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.(29词)

  v 译文:如今的研究岗位需要申请者发表的论文数量(1分),是十年前同一岗位所需数量的两倍(1分)。

  【48】

  v 原句:(48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.(31词)

  v 译文:为遏制该趋势人们已做出了一些尝试,例如(1分),尝试将一些质量和数量的衡量标准纳入申请者论文的评估之中(1分)。

  【49】

  v 原句:(49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.(36词)

  v 译文:如果科学家没有轻易在未来的出版物中引用自己的论文(1分),也没有为换取类似的好处而指使同事为其这样去做(0.5分),那么该索引便是合理的(0.5分)

  【50】

  v 原句:(50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.(25词)

  v 译文:若想严格确保科学既有意义又可再生(1分),我们还必须确保我们的体制支持这种科学才行(1分)。

  Section III Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Suppose you are working for the “Aiding Rural Primary Schools” project of your university...

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  英语一·答案解析·小作文

  【51】

  v 原题:Suppose you are working for the “Aiding Rural Primary Schools” project of your university. Write an email to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying the details of the project.

  v 审题:咨询的回复信

  v 范文:

  Dear Friend,

  I am glad to receive your letter of May 20, 2018, in which you have asked information about “Aiding Rural Primary Schools” project. I am writing this letter to give my answers to you.

  Firstly, with respect to the basic requirements of volunteers, I would like to tell you that there is a chance that can be offered to international students and you are qualified for it. Secondly, since you want to prepare some activities to help students with their spoken English, I have enclosed a list about the detailed arrangement of the project.

  I hope that the above information can be helpful. And you could ask me at any time if there is other information you need.

  Sincerely yours,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should......

  英语一·答案解析·大作文

  【52】

  v 范文:

  It is vividly depicted in the picture that two youngster are standing in front of the huge mountain and wondering to climb over it. If we give it a closer watch, it is not difficult to figure out that being tired, one of them is hesitating to continue the course, while the other is encouraging his teammate with an idea that a short break will restore their physical and mental condition. What the drawing has implied is supposed to be paid further attention.

  Whether it is for an individual or a nation, positive attitude toward difficulties matters in our daily life. As a matter of fact, optimism and persistence largely contribute to the social progress and the country’s long-term stability. In addition, if one person adopts a positive attitude, he or she tends to reach the life goals. For instance, Helen Keller did not let the flower of her life wither away although the merciless illness left her deaf and blind. Instead, she strived to gain knowledge and became a master of five languages, famous writer and educator.

  Given all the reasons, we ought to take efforts to promote and develop the fine quality. Especially, the mass media should carry forward the right values vigorously and take the responsibility to awaken the public to the significance of optimism and persistence. Only in this way can we enjoy the ultimate success.


扫码关注
微信二维码

官方微信公众号

电话咨询
联系电话
tel:
返回顶部